Lloyd’s of London to pay for ‘shameful’ Atlantic slave trade role

By Guy Faulconbridge and Kate Holton

LONDON (Reuters) – The Lloyd’s of London insurance market apologized on Thursday for its “shameful” role in the 18th and 19th Century Atlantic slave trade and pledged to fund opportunities for black and ethnic minority people.

As part of a global reassessment of history and racism triggered by the death of George Floyd in the United States, some British institutions have begun re-examining their past, especially connections to slavery.

The Bank of England also apologized for what it called the “inexcusable connections” of some past governors and directors to slavery, and said it would remove any portraits of them from display anywhere on its premises.

About 17 million African men, women and children were torn from their homes and shackled into one of the world’s most brutal globalized trades between the 15th and 19th centuries. Many died in merciless conditions.

“We are sorry for the role played by the Lloyd’s market in the 18th and 19th Century slave trade – an appalling and shameful period of English history, as well as our own,” Lloyd’s said in a statement on Thursday.

“Recent events have shone a spotlight on the inequality that black people have experienced over many years as a result of systematic and structural racism that has existed in many aspects of society and unleashed difficult conversations that were long overdue,” it added.

The world’s leading commercial insurance market, Lloyd’s – which started life in Edward Lloyd’s coffee house in 1688 – is where complex insurance contracts ranging from catastrophe to events cancellation are agreed and underwritten.

Lloyd’s grew to dominate the shipping insurance market, a key element of Europe’s global scramble for empire, treasure and slaves, who were usually in the 18th Century included in insurance policies in the general rate for ship cargo.

Weapons and gunpowder from Europe were swapped for African slaves who were shipped across the Atlantic to the Americas.

Those who survived endured a life of subjugation on plantations, while the ships returned to Europe laden with sugar, cotton and tobacco.

‘INEXCUSABLE’

Although Britain abolished the trans-Atlantic slave trade in 1807, full abolition did not follow for another generation.

Lloyd’s said it would invest in programmes to attract black and minority ethnic talent, review its artefacts to ensure they were not racist and support charities and organizations promoting opportunity for black and minority ethnic people.

Among other British institutions reassessing the legacies of the past is Oriel College, part of Oxford University, which said on Wednesday it wanted to remove a statue of 19th century colonialist Cecil Rhodes.

Greene King, which describes itself as Britain’s leading pub owner and brewer, apologized for the profit one of its original founders made from the slave trade.

Greene King would make investments to help the black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) community and to support race diversity in its business, chief executive Nick Mackenzie said.

The history of several other British financial firms, including Barclays , is also under fresh scrutiny.

The bank was named after David Barclay, a Quaker who campaigned actively against slavery in the late 18th century, but it later acquired institutions with links to the slave trade, including Colonial Bank in 1918 and Martins Bank in 1969.

“We can’t change what’s gone before us, only how we go forward,” a Barclays spokesman said.

The City of London Corporation has launched the Tackling Racism Working Party, which it said will look to promote economic, educational and social inclusion in the City of London and assess the future of statues and monuments.

(Additional reporting by Sinead Cruise, Huw Jones and David Milliken; Editing by Estelle Shirbon and Andrew Cawthorne)

https://www.capebretonpost.com/news/world/lloyds-of-london-apologises-for-shameful-role-in-atlantic-slave-trade-463543/

Shackles used in the Transatlantic slave trade

They are right.

It was inexcusable. At least they didn’t try to justify it or say “it happened a long time ago.” They paid handsome prices for the lives of those who died aboard these slave ships. Many times people were taken aboard these ships simply to collect an insurance payment. They knew the person wasn’t strong enough to make the voyage. But their lives were insured. At trading posts, insurance were bought for each person being sold. These companies sometimes had set-up at these Points of No-Return.

Or either they fiance the trip and the purchases in return for a share of the profit. London isn’t the only city that prospered on the backs of slaves. Almsot the entire world did.

About unholypursuit

A. White, an award winning former librarian, who is also a long time member of Romantic Time and Publisher's Weekly. A. White has been writing for over fifteen years. She took classes in creative writing in college, specializing in ancient myths and legends. and later at a local community center while living in Chicago. In college she won the national contest to verbally list every country in the world, it's capital and ingenious language. Her works are mainly horror, fantasy, extreme, and sci-fi as well as, as some may says, "the truly strange predicament and puzzling." Books that I've written are "Clash with the Immortals, and eleven others which are part of the "Unholy Pursuit saga,". She has been working on the Chronicles since 2007. She wished to complete them all before introducing them to public so the readers wouldn't have to for the continuation to be written. The ideas of the book come from classic literature such as whose work greatly influence the world world such as Homer, Sophocles, Herodotus, Euripides, Socrates, Hippocrates, Aristophanes, Plato, Aristotle and many more. The "Book of Enoch" influenced the usage of Azazael as a main character and love interest. I created the primary main character from the Chronicle of Saints. I wanted to show them as real flesh and blood with thoughts, desires and yearning as any human. Not as they are so often depicted. So I created one of my own to show her as a real human that everyone can relate to.
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50 Responses to Lloyd’s of London to pay for ‘shameful’ Atlantic slave trade role

  1. Sheree says:

    About time too

    Liked by 3 people

  2. Thank you for writing about it! I recently read a book about the beginning of slavery called “Saltwater slavery” by Smallwood. I found it very interesting and educative, for someone like me who did not know very much about the subject. I just put it out here, in case you’re interested in the subject.

    Liked by 3 people

  3. Celeste says:

    For this very reason villages were raided, residents killed, captured and sold. The very reason lives of millions were insured on these death voyages. I am not convinced those involved didn’t know any better. Didn’t know this was wrong. What were the warring Africa thinking to sell your own people to strangers.

    Liked by 3 people

    • I hope it offer some consolation that they finally acknowledged it. But a bigger consolation is to pay the injured parties. Talk is cheap. One who truly means what they say will make serious attempts to righten the wrong.

      Like

  4. kevinashton says:

    There are still many wealthy “elite” families in the UK that either made their fortune or enhance their wealth from being involved in slavery.

    We should shaming them, rather than the institutions they worked for (that act like a shield).
    Many descendants of the slavers such as MP Richard Drax hold positions of power. 30,000 slaves dies at their family sugar plantations in the West Indies over a 200 year period.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Drax

    And for anyone reading this, that thinks this has has no bearing on how Mr Drax’s conducts himself today, I recommend they look up his voting record in the British Parliament. He voted against a bill to make it a legal requirement that all rented property be fit for human habitation. He also voted against free school dinners for children in poverty. I could say more but I hope these small examples are read many times.

    Liked by 3 people

    • Thanks for letting us know that. I’m sure other British blog members are familiar with who he is. You are right– the inhumane conditions and the way it was carried out affected the captured person and those who brought and sold them. Slavery affected how those who benefited from it sees others even unto this day. There’s lots of wealthy, titled people who do not see others as their equal. This was what they were taught from birth. Isn’t the word commoner still used in Britain? I guess that’s better than peasant or serf. 😦

      I looked up the place called Charborough House. It’s quite exclusive. I see he’s well connected from centuries ago. The sale of such a manor could make a lot of people comfortable. I see he’s connected to royalty. I believe the institutions are merely the start of paying the restitution.

      There are still many wealthy “elite” families in all the world that either made their fortune or enhance their wealth from being involved in slavery and this has been the real problem in getting the restitution paid. Going after these people’s individual wallets aren’t something most nations wants to do. The institutions are the source of their incomes.

      Family links to historical slavery

      During the 2010 United Kingdom general election campaign period, in which Drax was campaigning to be MP for South Dorset, the Daily Mirror reported that Drax’s family had earned their fortune through slavery. Drax’s response questioned his responsibility for “something that happened 300 or 400 years ago”, stating “it’s not what I stand for”, and cited the desperation of his opponents- “all they can do is pick at bits of my family history”. In 2013, the BBC reported that his ancestor John Erle-Drax, who had an estate in Barbados, was recorded in a database created by University College London as having received £4,293 12s 6d in compensation in 1836 for 189 slaves when slavery was abolished.

      A 2020 investigation by The Guardian found that Richard Drax still owns and grows sugar on the same Drax Hall plantation in Barbados that made the family’s fortune. Over 200 years, 30,000 slaves died at this and the other Drax plantations, according to Professor Sir Hilary Beckles, Chair of CARICOM’s Reparations Commission. “The Drax family has done more harm and violence to the black people of Barbados than any other,” he said.

      Hold on, no one asked him what others did to the blacks of Barbados. Of course he doesn’t think hungry kids are a big deal if 30,000 people dying doesn’t bother him. But I gather, he was being asked what did his family intended to do about restitution, not what others did during slavery. [His answer clearly stated nothing. They intend to nothing. However, his answer was typical.]

      Liked by 2 people

    • Roseque says:

      I agree, we should be shaming these families instead of the Institutions they are hiding behind and using as a shield to keep their ill-gotten gains.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. ShiraDest says:

    A start, at last. Now more companies like New York Life, and other insurers need to do more to repair the damage by making reparations and restitution.

    Liked by 3 people

    • Maybe they too will follow suit. There are countless others who financed these voyages like the Lehman brothers.

      Liked by 2 people

      • ShiraDest says:

        Wow, so many companies still in business after all of this time, having done such things that no one knows about (thanks to the state of CA for pushing awareness of the NY Life issue…)

        Liked by 1 person

        • Yes, most companies that prospered from slavery are still in business today. It’s not hard to find out who they are. They merely altered their names over time. It would be hard pressed to find a company in American, Europe, and the British, French, Dutch, Spanish, and and Portuguese former and present colonies that doesn’t have its roots in slavery.

          Like for example, shortly after Emancipation many African nations sent money [gold] to help the newly freed people get a footing on a new life but the money wasn’t used to help them. It was argued that rebuilding the country would help them. But it didn’t. A lot of it was placed in the Freedman’s Bureau Bank but that was used to finance the country and rebuild the South after the war. Millions was loaned to white business men who never intended to repay the money. It even finance the railroads being built heading west.

          Many high rollers like Henry D. Cooke used the money deposited by ex-slaves to bankroll their personal wealth. He wasn’t the only one. It’s believed this is where the seed wealth of those like the Rockefellers, JPMorgan, Andrew Carnegie [ At least Andrew Carnegie did try and help the public and give money back to the poor], and many others who because extremely wealthy between 1865-1900 came from. The bank failed in 1872 but the loans had made many millionaires. They were getting their seed money from the Freedman’s Bureau Bank, the bank designed by Lincoln to aid the newly freed slaves..

          Had the money been given directly to the former slaves and not bureaucrats who spree it out like it was theirs, I believe there would have been a different life in the African American community today.

          Liked by 1 person

          • ShiraDest says:

            What?! I read that the Freedman’s Bank had been mismanged and lost money though incompetence before they hung it around Frederick Douglass’ neck, but I never heard of teh money being used outside of the Freedman’s Bureau! Wow! I just assumed that there had never been much money to begin with in the Bureau, and yes, had the funds been given directly to the freed slaves, things would be very different!

            Liked by 1 person

            • No, the Freedman’s Bureau at that time was perhaps the wealthiest agency of the government. It has 27 headquartered branches and hundreds of agents expanding all the way from Maryland to Florida to the West Coast. Frederick Douglas didn’t become president of the bank until the last few months in an attempt to save it. He invested and lost of money trying to save it.

              How it went under is that after the assassination of Lincoln, President Johnson removed the original president of the bank, named Howard, and instilled a southerner sympathizer as the head of the Freedman bureau. Henry D. Cooke was instilled and used the money deposited by ex-slaves to bankroll his and his friends personal wealth. At its wealthiest time the deposits stood at 35-55 million dollars and back in the 1800’s this was like trillions of dollars today.

              This is why General(s) Grant, Mead, and Sherman were threatening President Johnson. This is part of the reason Congress impeached him. Johnson and his cronies tried to overturn all that was gained by the Civil War and would have had not Congress stopped them.

              “I read that the Freedman’s Bank had been mismanaged and lost money though incompetence before they hung it around Frederick Douglass’ neck. ”

              This is what’s taught in school level history. A lot of times colleges go far deeper into something than high school.

              It was not mismanagement that closed that bank. It was Congress refusing to save it after loans were made to people who had no intentions of repaying them.

              When people tried to withdraw their money—they were unable to do so because the money didn’t exist.

              Had the money from Africa gone directly to the newly freed people—I truly believes things would be vastly different for African Americans today.

              Liked by 1 person

              • ShiraDest says:

                Aha, as in General O. Howard, of Howard University, which also nearly went under, if I recall correctly?

                Wow, and no classes were available (ok, I was an engineering major, so I didn’t get alot of choice, either, even at Morgan…) back when I went to college that addressed the issue at all, afaik, and this is something that all Americans need to know!
                Thank you for sharing this!

                Liked by 1 person

                • Yes, the same general. Yes, Howard University stumbled several times but it pulled through with the help of other historical black colleges ganging together and pulling the black Harvard through. It pulled though and gave the nation the first woman ever to sit in the Vice Presidential seat. These colleges have given the nation some of the most influential and successful African Americans such as Oprah Winfrey and many others.

                  The Freedman’s Bureau is what partial financed all the historical black colleges like Howard, [the seed money] the rest was done by former slaves backing the building of the schools by waging their labor against it.
                  You can find some of it in the writing of W. E. B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglas.
                  Well, things like this isn’t taught about the giants in the industries because then you would have to admit they didn’t become who they did by their own merit. Yes, it is something all Americans could know, but it’s not so new of a practice after all. These very practices are why certain people can get loans today and ordinary people can not.

                  Liked by 1 person

  6. fgsjr2015 says:

    Beginning as a young boy watching the original release of the 1977 TV miniseries ‘Roots’, I can recall how bewildered I’d always get just by the concept of Black people being brutalized and told they were not welcome — while they, as a people, had been violently forced here from their African home as slaves! And, as a people, there has been no “reparations” or real refuge here for them, since. In Toni Morrison’s novel Beloved, the narrator notes that, like the South, the Civil War era northern states also hated Black people but happened to hate slavery more.

    As a 53-year-old news consumer, I find that (in this world) a very large number of people, however precious their lives, can atrociously be considered disposable to a nation. And when the young children of those people take notice of this, they’re vulnerable to begin perceiving themselves as worthless. Although their devaluation as human beings is basically based on their race, it still reminds me of the devaluation, albeit perhaps subconsciously, of the daily civilian lives lost (a.k.a. “casualties”) in protractedly devastating civil war zones and sieges. At some point, they can end up receiving just a couple column inches in the First World’s daily news.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Yes, it is ironic how America has made African Americans unwelcome when they didn’t come here on their own free will.

      Yes, there is much prejudice in the North as well as the South, many people has been led to believe there isn’t.

      No reparation has been paid but at least it’s being ‘looked’ at. I feel the same will happen this time that happened in 1865 when they ‘looked’ into the effect of slavery. I haven’t put much faith in anyone doing the right thing.

      Liked by 1 person

  7. Ankur Mithal says:

    It is a troubling subject. How does one make reparation for a crime against humanity two hundred years back, as opposed to creating a free and fair world today? Who would be considered to be a representative of the wrongdoer or the wrong done by two hundred years ago? A continuing corporation, if still in existence, is perhaps easier to target that way. What about corporations that folded up along the way? What about a king? Will we hang his successors?

    Liked by 1 person

    • No, Ankur, it is not such a troubling or difficult issue, not if one is willing to deal with it. There’s nothing hard or difficult to understand at all if one has intentions of finally doing the right thing.

      It’s only those not wanting to pay the reparation see it as difficult, are those who are trying to make it a difficult issue.

      The creation of the so-called free market is not free to all and has never been equal. It’s not free because of systematic racism created back in 1619 is alive today won’t let it work in favor of everyone. That’s why the reparation is the right thing to do. To give those who start out in life in this county or any former slave holding countries at a grave disadvantage, an equal footing in pursuing all the advantages their country has to offer.

      We need not look back at 200 years ago to see the effects of slavery. These crimes and discriminations are still going on today.

      You see, all these people were captured, sold like animals and forced to work themselves to death for people and companies that still exist. These people who were harmed were never compensated for it. Everyone admit that much. And after emancipation, these never made payments were supposed to have gone to these former slaves’ estates, and when or if the payments are made [this never happened] and if the person is no longer alive then it goes to the former slave’s estate, it is the descendants who inherit it.

      When these people were bought, their lives were insured by these insurance companies. Their life value was determined by insurance companies for these slavers and traders. Lloyd of London and many others still have these records. That’s how they know who is who.

      Your statements could bear weight if systematic racism didn’t still exist, today. And can easily be proven it still exist.

      The wrong doers would be all those who benefited by this system set up to benefit only selected people and these people are still benefiting from it.

      The records of who was who still exist. The records of their dealings still exist. How many slaves they owned, sold and etc, still exist. Cities like Chicago refuse to allow a company that had a hand in slavery to operate there. You see, the Civil War battles did not destroy even half of the records. Many of these records are not in the United States. In many places some of these are public records.

      Most of these companies did not fold up along the way. The simply reinvented themselves into modern companies. Most of the companies and old planters did not fold. Yes, the original way in which they operated did fold, but many were bailed out by President Johnson. That’s where most of the Freedman’s Bureau’s loans went, not to the newly freed men and women whom they were supposed to have helped. Well, this has the constant case with almost everything in America. Blacks constantly being denied opportunities and passed over in favor of whites.

      When the mid-1800’s congress, a pro-slavery congress at that time agreed to make things like fugitive slave act, that made the US government accountable to the people it was helping the slavers and traders keep enslaved.

      There are thousands of corporations and individuals still around who benefited from slavery. These records can be found if anyone care to look for them.

      Like

      • Ankur Mithal says:

        Thank you for the detailed response. LIke I said in my comment, efforts to make the world just and fair must be made. I think it is a given. My question was more around punishing, or at least holding accountable, people for past misdeeds. Did George Washington have slaves? Should he be punished in some way?

        Liked by 1 person

        • Efforts to make the world just has been attempted numerous times, many times, but each time those who wish things to stay the same and want to remain in superior positions have opposed any form of efforts. Many have lost their lives attempting to make the world just and fair. All conventional methods seemed to have failed.

          We are still repeating the same issues that were a problem nearing 200 years ago and that shouldn’t be the case. Thereupon, it is quite clear that the traditional methods have not worked. No real progress is being made.

          Yes, George Washington owned slaves and many other presidents. No one is talking about physical punishment for these slave holders for the crimes they committed. That’s impossible, they are all dead. No one can arrest them for these crimes, they are dead, but their estates lives on. They all had Estates which they passed down to their children and heirs. And these estates included living, live human beings who were passed on to their children. Estates that had been made wealthy by unpaid slave labor. So, if the profits made from the estate can be passed on to the descendants, why not the payments due for unpaid labor be passed on the workers’ descendants?

          If the descendants or heirs do not want the duty of payment of restitution, then give up the estate. It’s that simple. One can’t have their cake and eat it too.

          That’s all restitution is about. Holding people accountable for what has happened. If there is no accountability, then what’s to stop it from happening again? No accountability creates tyrannic societies.

          An example. When the enslaved Israelites left Egypt, according to today’s reasoning they were due no restitution because Ramses was not the pharaoh who enslaved them. It was another pharaoh who lived four hundred years earlier. But Ramses paid the restitution and that became a world standard of what you are to do when you have enslaved people. He didn’t argue, “Why is everyone looking at me? Hey, I wasn’t the pharoah who enslaved them.”

          Restitution are paid to keep a society running smoothly. I don’t know what about things like this, but they have to be addressed. No society can never avoid them no matter how much a people justify not paying them. They have a way of boomeranging back around. Some call it divine retribution.

          Like

  8. Kevin says:

    I think it’s time to spill out the cold hearted details. It’s time we really know what kind of things happened, why, the ulterior motives, it’s role in economics & infrastructure. There’s so many more facts I want to learn about other than the racial hate side of slavery. Did European civilization devise a plan of expansion at the expense of stronger backs than theres?

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hi Kevin, thank you for your question and comment.

      First of all, to even begin to understand slavery you can not ignore the racial hate side of slavery. It was used a justification of why it was okay to treat humans worst than animals. The hatred you see being spewed today was born of slavery. It’s still affecting the world today in a very real and deadly way.

      The answers to many of your questions can be found on this blog.

      But I was answer the immediate one. Yes, European civilization devised many plans of expansions at the expense of stronger backs than theirs. it Starting as early as the 13th century, a plan of expansion begin after Marco Polo famous trip to China and seeing the wealth of other nations in the thirteen century.

      Just as Rome built itself off the backs of slaves, and planned it expansion at the price of blood and stuffed itself wealthy by the lives of others. So did Europe.

      Yes, after the invention of guns and cannons, there was a deliberate plan to enslave others and take their land and wealth. It was no accident. Colonization and slavery was no accident.

      During the Age of Expedition, every European nation looked to less advantage nations, tribe and cities for free labor because one could never become as rich as they would like to become counting on paid labour.

      Kings and popes signed creeds stating that it was just and normal to enslave people. It was okay to kill them, mistreat to get the most out of them.

      https://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/african_laborers_for_a_new_emp/pope_nicolas_v_and_the_portugu

      In 1411 the Pope signed a creed stating that Africans were not humans therefore it was alright to enslave them. Many wars were found in the Sinai Peninsula to prevent the exit of slaves from Africa, but dodge encountering these groups were when the West Africa slave posts were set up.

      Liked by 1 person

    • The cold hearted details is up to a hundred million people lost their lives in actions connected to slavery and greed. It was and still is the worst atrocity known in human history. The motivation was money and power. How did it help with the economics & infrastructure. As I said earlier, it was far cheaper to buy someone for a few hundred dollars and get thirty years worth of free labor than to pay someone for thirty years.

      https://unholypursuit.wordpress.com/2021/05/30/why-are-we-paying-for-confederate-soldiers-tombstones-and-upkeep/

      A commenter named Nina wrote:

      (A bale is a compressed bundle of cotton weighing between 400 and 500 pounds). x .47 per lb =$235.00 a bale.

      Each adult person picked about 200 lbs per day. So, if there were about 30 people picking at 200 lbs a day= 6,000 lbs per day. (I am aware a bale is compressed cotton) -in an very good average week a planter made $14,000-15,000 per week. but yet only paid the sharecropping family $2.50 and most farm hands had to buy things (food, clothing, and other essentials) on credit at a local general store and because of inflated prices this bill was never paid up. You couldn’t not leave a plantation owing a general store debt. If you did, you should be arrested and sent to prison. If they could find you. And then your wife and children survived off the goodness of the community.

      Sending the man to prison was the way of the nice store owners. The extremely racist ones had him killed for attempting to sneak out on a debt as they called it.

      $56,000 per month was a month’s earnings and that was in a slow month. While I and my family was vacating in the Hampton, Martha’s Vineyard, Paris, London, Rome and many other places these people back home killing themselves in blistering heat to support our extravagant lifestyle and then we turn around and demanded that their descendants’ tax dollars support the upkeep of our dead.

      Not only were black people being cheated out of wages but often cheated out of life as well. I am sure you know about all the terrible things happened.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Kevin says:

        Do you have any references or signs to some of the secrets & truth about Congo or South Africa

        Like

        • https://enfntsterribles.com/truth-leopold-ii-statues-belgium-congo-racism/

          The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, Conquest of Africa, or the Rape of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonization of most of Africa by seven Western European powers during a short period known to historians as the New Imperialism (between 1600’s through about 1914)

          Just north of Johannesburg’s flashy suburbs lies Diepsloot. The sprawling township is a congregation of wooden and corrugated iron shacks. Many youths are hoping to improve their lives and the place they call home. Diepsloot, is one of Johannesburg’s largest slums.

          Like

      • Kevin says:

        Or even something drawing upon the bloodline of Mansa Musa (the man who owned fortunes of gold). I can not seem to find anything accurate regarding his history, how his gold was seized, & who he bumped into that caused his defeat. I wonder if that is a foundational piece of history that has been omitted (or at least attempts at omission)

        Liked by 1 person

        • With the Muslim invasion of Africa much of Mansa Musa’s history was destroyed and even twisted to suit whomever telling it. But enough survived that it is not hard to learn the truth about him. His gold was never seized. He gave it away to curb the out-pour of slaves exiting Africa, The gold he paid out was primarily to slavers for the freedom of slaves since money was the man rally cry as to why the Muslims said they were raiding villages. Manusa was not defeated. It was his son who was defeated. Many different Middle Eastern, Eastern, and European nations joined together to defeat his son, who was using a lot of paid paid mercenaries to wage war against those after his father’s gold. That’s where a lot of the gold went.

          Just about every major European and Middle Eastern nation at that time who heard about his wealth was after it. After his conversion to Christendom, the head of the Muslim faith declared war on him.

          Liked by 1 person

        • https://www.history.com/news/who-was-the-richest-man-in-history-mansa-musa

          Perhaps the works of Afro studies authors such as Carnell West would provide more information.

          Liked by 1 person

  9. Roseque says:

    I had not realized so many of these companies and entities were still around.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Yes, most Pre-Civil Companies are still around. The plantations merely reinvented themselves. The American Civil War didn’t destroy as many cities as many other nations’ civil war did. Therefore the war was a long way from these companies headquarters.

      Like

    • Besides Fredericksburg, Richmond, New Orleans, and Atlanta and parts of Savannah and Charleston most American cities were untouched by the war. So when it was over they simply resumed business as before.

      Like

  10. Alena says:

    It is a great thought a kind gesture, but I don’t see anything becoming of this because people are just too selfish to accomplish something like this.

    Liked by 1 person

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